Skip to Main Content

Evidence-Based Medicine: Home

Evidence-Based Medicine

What is EBM?

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.

  • Best research evidence
  • Clinical expertise
  • Patient values

When these three elements are integrated, clinicians and patients form a diagnostic and therapeutic alliance which optimizes clinical outcomes and quality of life.

From: The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM)

Formulating Clinical Questions

Asking a clinical question involves creating a PICO or PICOTT question

P patient, population and/or problem

I intervention, prognostic factor, exposure

C comparison, or comparative intervention (if appropriate)- this could also be the absence of intervention or exposure

O outcome you would like to measure or achieve

T type of question you are asking

T type of study you would want to find

Connecting a Research Question to Study Design

Type of Question

Study Design for Question*



RCT (randomized controlled trial)

Is this intervention more effective than another?

Diagnostic test

Independent, prospective blind comparison to a gold standard

How accurate is this diagnostic test?


Cohort study à case-control à case series

What is the likely outcome, progression, or survival time for this condition?


**RCT à cohort study à case-control à case series

What are the possible causes of this condition or state of affairs?


RCT à cohort study à case-control

How to reduce the risk of this disease?



Evidence-Based Medicine Current Issue

Loading ...