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Evidence Synthesis : Developing the Research Question

Useful resources and tools for planning and conducting systematic reviews

Identifying a Research Question

As you write your research question there are a few different frameworks you can choose from that will help you identify key concepts of your research question and determine your study's inclusion/exclusion criteria.


  • P      Population/Problem
  • I        Intervention/Exposure
  • C      Comparison
  • O      Outcome


  • P       Population/Problem
  •       Phenomenon of Interest 
  • Co    Context


  • S    Sample
  • PI   Phenomenon of Interest
  • D    Design
  • E    Evaluation
  • R    Study Type