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Architecture Research Guide: Chicago Citation Style

Research resources for architecture and design


The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is published by the University of Chicago Press and is often used in business, history, fine arts, and the humanities. There are two different systems of CMOS, "Notes and Bibliography" and "Author/Date."  This guide will focus on the more popular Notes and Bibliography system. This format requires either footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography at the end of the paper.

CMOS also has specific rules related to capitalization, abbreviations, the appearance of dates, and punctuation in citations that are unique to this style and help distinguish it from others. 

NOTE: This LibGuide is not exhaustive - if you do not see the type of source your are tying to cite, please consult the Chicago Manual of Style Online (linked below).

Core Elements of CMOS

Depending on the source type (book, journal article, etc.), your bibliography entry and footnote/endnote are composed of these major elements:

  1. Author
  2. Title of source
  3. Publisher
  4. Publication date
  5. DOI

There are additional elements that may be required based on the source type. They are assembled in a specific order and followed by specific punctuation. 

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is an identifier assigned by the publisher that provides a persistent link to the online source. Scholarly journals accessed online are often assigned a DOI number. If a DOI is available, use it at the end of the citation.

Working with this template and the information indicated on your source, you should be able to create an accurate Bibliography entry for almost any source you use.